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Statistical physics of compressed sensing
jeudi 14 novembre 2013

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Descriptif

Conférence de Marc Mézard

Compressed sensing is a major new topic in information theory. Starting from the observation that interesting signals can be compressed, and thus are sparse in some representation, it aims at acquiring data directly in a compressed way, using then computational methods to reconstruct the original signal. It opens the way to faster, less destructive, and more effective signal acquisition, with possible applications in many branches of science, from magnetic resonance imaging to astronomy, tomography, or gene interaction network reconstruction.

The big challenge of compressed sensing is to be able to reconstruct faithfully the original signal -which can involve millions of variables- using the smallest possible number of measurements. Recent developments, using concepts and methods developed in the last fourty years in the statistical physics of disordered systems allow to understand the existence of reconstruction thresholds due to phase transitions, and to design new protocols which minimize the number of measurement where the phase transition occurs, going thus beyond standard approaches based on convex optimization.

The talk will review the basics of compressed sensing and describe the spectacular progress that has been made using various statistical physics ideas, from spin glass theory to crystal nucleation.

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Auteur(s)
Marc Mézard
École normale supérieure
Physicien - Directeur de l'Ecole normale supérieure

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Institutions : Ecole normale supérieure

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Marc Mézard est un physicien français, spécialiste de physique statistique. Il est devenu, en avril 2012, le 29e directeur de l'École normale supérieure. Normalien, agrégé de physique, il est entré au CNRS en 1981. Depuis 1987, il enseigne aussi à l'Ecole polytechnique. En 2009, il a été l'un des trois lauréats du Prix Humboldt de la recherche.

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Dernière mise à jour : 10/12/2013